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NEW YORK, April 24, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

LBS Research Series 2013

This report bundle is a complete set of five unique reports - offering in-depth analysis and unique insights into the mobile LBS market. This package comprise the following titles in Berg Insight's LBS Research Series: Mobile Navigation Services and Devices, Mobile Location-Based Services, LBS Platforms and Technologies, Location-Based Advertising and Marketing and People Monitoring and Safety Solutions.

Executive summary


Navigation solutions for car and pedestrian navigation can be divided into multiple categories. Car manufacturers offer factory installed in-dash navigation systems as standard or optional equipment on a majority of their models sold in developed markets. Drivers that want to add a navigation system to their existing vehicle can choose among numerous aftermarket solutions, including in-dash navigation and infotainment systems, Personal Navigation Devices (PNDs) and navigation apps for handsets. At the end of 2012, there were 230 million dedicated car navigation systems in use globally, including an estimated 80 million factory installed or aftermarket in-dash navigation systems and 150 million PNDs. Even though the share of new cars fitted with factory installed in-dash navigation systems will grow fast as prices decline, the penetration among vehicles in use will grow slowly. The average age of vehicles in North America and Europe has grown to 9 years. Aftermarket navigation solutions will thus account for a majority of navigation systems in use in the foreseeable future. Since the different solutions are tailored for slightly different use-cases, multiple navigation-capable device solutions can be expected to co-exist in the future. Many consumers are also likely to own and use more than one navigation capable device.

The PND device category is facing increasing competition from low cost in-dash navigation systems, as well as aftermarket products ranging from in-dash systems to navigation apps for smartphones and tablets. Moreover, the penetration rate for PNDs is already high in many markets. Global shipments of PNDs fell 15 percent to 28 million units in 2012, which marks the third year of decline from the peak of 40 million units sold in 2008 and 2009. Sales will continue to decline in developed markets, but some emerging markets are still showing growth even though emerging markets will not compensate for the decline in mature markets. Berg Insight forecasts global PND shipments to decline to 17 million units in 2017.

The intense competition in the PND segment has led to market consolidation. Several vendors have already exited the market – either in the most competitive markets or altogether, while others have acquired competitors. MiTAC has acquired the PND operations of Navman and the consumer product division of Magellan Navigation. United Navigation, which began operations in early 2010, has licensed the rights to use the Falk and Becker brands for navigation solutions. Garmin completed the acquisition of Navigon in July 2011. On a global level, the PND market is now dominated by the three vendors Garmin, TomTom and MiTAC that together hold 73 percent market share. In Western Europe and North America, these brands have about 90 percent market share. These companies have highly integrated operations ranging from hardware and software development to distribution. There are also some vendors that hold strong positions on a local or regional level such as United Navigation in Germany, Prestigio in Eastern Europe and Panasonic in Japan. As the market is declining, the leading PND vendors Garmin, TomTom and MiTAC, as well as the leading white-label PND software developers Elektrobit and NNG are increasingly focusing on developing in-dash navigation systems for the automotive industry.

Navigation services for mobile phones have been available since 2002, but have only become a serious threat to PNDs in the last few years as smartphone performance has improved and device adoption accelerated. The global active installed base of smartphones grew to 1.2 billion units at the end of 2012. Smartphone adoption – i.e. the share of all handsets in use – had reached about 23 percent worldwide, over 50 percent in North America and more than 40 percent in the EU27+2. Berg Insight estimates that the number of monthly active users of navigation apps for mobile phones was 150 million worldwide at the end of 2012.

The growing usage of mobile navigation apps has largely been driven by broader availability of free services. Starting in late 2009, all the leading smartphone platform and device vendors have introduced free navigation apps for end-users. Apple, Google and Nokia have developed their navigation apps in-house, while other device vendors such as BlackBerry, HTC, LG, Samsung and Sony Mobile cooperate with navigation app developers like Appello, Navmii, NDrive, ROUTE 66 and TeleCommunication Systems. Besides handset vendors, app developers also use distribution channels including app stores and mobile operators. As competition from free apps has intensified, app developers are increasingly focusing on freemium business models where the core turn-by-turn navigation service is free and users have the option to purchase additional content and features. Advertising is also slowly becoming a source of revenues for developers with large active user bases.


The mobile channel is gradually strengthening its position in the marketing media mix as smartphones are becoming ubiquitous and drive mobile media usage. One of the key developments in mobile advertising is the increasing integration of location-sensitivity, which releases the full potential of the mobile channel. A notable divide can be made between static and real-time location-based advertising (LBA). Targeting by static variables involves using information which is part of user profiles such as place of residence and work. Real-time location targeting instead uses location information which is gathered when an ad is delivered to a mobile user. Such LBA campaigns leverage the same type of technologies to determine user location as other location-based services (LBS). Common methods include GPS, Cell-ID and Wi-Fi positioning which are all based on real-time information.

Targeting by location in combination with other contextual and behavioural segmentation greatly enhances the relevance of mobile advertising. It has been demonstrated that locationtargeted ads generate considerably higher returns than conventional mobile advertising. The associated eCPM and CTR levels are several times higher. Berg Insight estimates that the total global value of the real-time mobile LBA market was € 526 million in 2012, representing 9.1 percent of the total mobile ad spend. Growing at a compound annual growth rate of 65.2 percent, the real-time LBA market is forecasted to be worth € 6.5 billion in 2017, corresponding to 32.8 percent of all mobile advertising and marketing. This means that location-based advertising and marketing will represent around 5 percent of digital advertising, or more than 1 percent of the total global ad spend for all media. Asia-Pacific is estimated to be the largest LBA market in 2017, followed by North America and Europe. Key drivers for LBA include the growing adoption of both outdoor and indoor location technologies, as well as the increasing consumer acceptance of LBS in general. Local advertising is further a major market and LBA opens up the mobile channel for new advertisers such as local merchants. Big-box retailers can leverage LBA to combat both online and physical competitors. The fact that LBA has higher performance has moreover translated into premium rates. The main barriers to adoption are related to the inherently limited reach of LBA which acts as a mental hurdle for advertisers. Education of advertisers and new methods for campaign performance evaluation are thus called for. Privacy issues can further not be ignored, but can be beneficially handled by privacy control options beyond simple opt-in mechanisms. The demand for geo-targeting remains comparably limited, but is bound to increase given the proven results such campaigns generate.

The LBA value chain is still forming and there are a large number of players involved in the ecosystem. The industry remains fragmented and far from mature. Many different companies are involved, ranging from LBA specialists such as Verve, Placecast and xAd, to LBS players including Telmap, Telenav and Waze, and operators such as AT&T, SFR and the new UK joint venture Weve. There is furthermore an abundance of location-aware applications and media which serve geo-targeted ads, with examples such as Foursquare, Shopkick and SCVNGR. Other stakeholders include coupons and deals providers including Vouchercloud, Yowza!! and COUPIES, search solutions such as Hibu and Yelp, and proximity marketing providers like Proxama, NeoMedia and Scanbuy. A number of traditional mobile advertising players are also active in the LBA space, for example Millennial Media, Madvertise and Nexage, as well as major digital and telecom players such as Google, Apple and Facebook.

There are a number of key takeaways from the current trends in LBA. It has been established that geo-targeting improves the performance of mobile marketing and greater shares of ad budgets are devoted to LBA. High-precision real-time geo-targeting is still sparsely used, and rightly so as most campaigns do not require an accuracy of a few meters. Hyper-local LBA is nevertheless becoming more common. Location is furthermore only one of many valuable targeting variables and marketers must also strive to leverage other contextual and behavioural data. It is then crucial to ensure sound opt-in procedures and individual privacy measures for consumers. Marketing methods such as conquesting and combating of showrooming can further leverage location-based advertising. Current important high-volume LBA formats include mobile search and SMS campaigns. Berg Insight anticipates that geotargeting gradually will become ubiquitous and available across the entire mobile channel.


Mobile location-based services (LBS) are gradually achieving mainstream market acceptance. Berg Insight estimates that the number of active users of location-based services and apps grew 80 percent in 2012. At the end of the year, about 40 percent of mobile subscribers in Europe were frequent users of at least one location-based service. In North America where adoption of smartphones and GPS-enabled handsets is higher, an estimated 50 percent of all handset users now access location-based services regularly. However, the significant growth in usage and number of active LBS users have not yet resulted in substantial growth in revenues. Total LBS service revenues in the EU 27+2 reached € 325 million in 2012 and Berg Insight forecasts LBS revenues to grow to about € 825 million by 2017. In North America, revenues are forecasted to grow from US$ 835 million in 2012 to about US$ 1,295 million by 2017.

There are many alternative ways to categorise various LBS. In this report, LBS are divided into eight service categories based on primary function: mapping and navigation, local search and information, social networking and entertainment, recreation and fitness, family and people locator services, mobile resource management, mobile advertising and marketing, and other services. Mapping and navigation is the leading segment in terms of revenues and the second largest in terms of number of active users. Although the number of active users of mapping and navigation services is still growing, revenues are only increasing slowly as competition from free and low cost services has intensified. White-label developers are now working with mobile operators to create localised offerings and attractive service bundles.

Some navigation service providers are focusing on freemium apps where the core navigation service is free and users have the option to purchase additional content and features. Local search and information services is now the leading LBS category in terms of unique users, driven by the adoption of handsets with improved capabilities and changing user habits. Most leading social networking services are now focusing more on their mobile offerings as users increasingly access services from mobile devices. Many of these services have various forms of location support ranging from sharing geo-tagged content to location sharing and check-in features. A growing number of outdoor and sports enthusiasts are downloading recreation and fitness apps that turn smartphones into convenient substitutes for GPS devices and sports watches. Family locator services have been part of mobile operators' LBS portfolios for many years – especially in the US – but are now facing competition from app developers. Also mobile workforce management services that aim to improve operational efficiency for businesses are gaining traction as the cost of hardware and software declines.

Advertising is an important source of revenues for many LBS providers. The mobile channel is getting established as an integral part of the marketing media mix as mobile media usage grows. Targeting by location in combination with other contextual and behavioural information greatly enhances the relevance of mobile advertising. It has been demonstrated that location-targeted ads generate considerably higher return than conventional mobile advertising, and the associated eCPM levels are several times higher. The main barriers to adoption are related to the inherently limited reach of LBA which acts as a mental hurdle for advertisers. The demand for hyper-local targeting of ads is so far limited among advertisers, but is anticipated to increase given the considerable impact such campaigns generate. Educating advertisers about this opportunity and new methods for campaign performance evaluation are thus called for.

Historically, mobile operators have been key partners and the main distribution channel for app and service developers. Operators have a direct relationship with large user bases, allowing them to market services, pre-install apps on new handsets, present links to services from their portals and handle end-user billing. This central role is now challenged by the rising smartphone ecosystems that integrate key LBS and give developers access to location data, distribution channels in the form of on-device app stores as well as billing and advertising solutions for monetisation. Mobile operators are therefore exploring other opportunities to leverage their assets, for instance by opening their location platforms to third party developers and location aggregators that play an important role as intermediaries between mobile operators and developers. Network-based location data is valuable for developers and third parties that need to locate any device, not only GPS-enabled smartphones. Mobile operators can provide network-based location data for services such as mobile analytics as well as fraud management and secure authentication.


Location platforms comprise software and hardware extensions to network infrastructure components that together can calculate the position of a handset. Mobile location platforms enable three categories of location-based services (LBS): public safety services, national security and law enforcement applications, as well as commercial LBS. Nearly 70 percent of all emergency calls are today placed from mobile phones and it can often be difficult for the caller to convey their location accurately to first responders. Location platforms can reduce the time to find the location of the caller. They also enable more efficient handling of simultaneous calls from people reporting the same incident to distinguish single accidents from multiple events. Another use case is public warning systems that can locate and send messages to all mobile users within a geo-fenced area. Government agencies can also use location platforms and data mining systems for critical infrastructure protection and location enhanced lawful intercept.

Location technologies can be divided into handset-based technologies (such as GPS) with intelligence mainly in the handset, network-based technologies (for instance Cell-ID, RF Pattern Matching and U-TDOA) with intelligence mainly in the network, as well as hybrid technologies (for instance A-GPS) with intelligence in both the handset and the network. Several new hybrid location technologies are in development, aiming to improve the performance of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in difficult environments. If not enough satellites are visible, it is for instance possible to fuse GNSS measurements with other network signals and data from inertial sensors to calculate the position. In pure indoor environments where GNSS is unavailable, the most common location technologies rely on Wi-Fi location using RF Pattern Matching or multilateration, augmented with data from sensors in the handset such as accelerometer, gyroscope, compass and barometer.

The Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) E911 mandates for location of mobile emergency calls released in 1996 was a major driver behind the development of location platforms for the North American market. In Europe, as well as in other developed countries such as Japan and South Korea, early deployments of location platforms focused on supporting commercial services due to the lack of a clear mandate for emergency services. In the first deployment phase, lasting from 2000 to 2003, operators invested in platforms and ready-made services. Overall, the results did not live up to the expectations in terms of uptake or usage and many operators therefore lost interest in LBS as a mass-market proposition.

A majority of commercial LBS now use location data obtained directly from GPS receivers and Wi-Fi chipsets in the handset, or various third party location databases, rather than directly from operators using network-based location. Mobile operators are however showing increasing interest in using mass location data for advertising and marketing, as well as new services like analytics. Moreover, governments and telecom regulators worldwide are now introducing emergency call and lawful intercept mandates that require at least basic location platforms. Although the regulators have typically not yet imposed any specific location accuracy requirements as part of the mandates, more stringent location accuracy may well be demanded in the future as technologies mature and costs decrease.

A diverse set of players are now developing indoor location platforms to support use-cases ranging from emergency call location to navigation, shopping, analytics and marketing. The established location platform vendors and connectivity chipset vendors are extending their offerings to enable indoor location. In addition, a growing number of technology specialists and start-up companies are also introducing software or infrastructure solutions that enable handset vendors, app developers and enterprises to add indoor location capabilities to smartphones that are already on the market.

Berg Insight estimates that one third of all mobile network operators worldwide have deployed at least some type of basic location platform. Additional deployments and updates of existing platforms can be expected in most markets in the coming years, primarily driven by government mandates, but also by new mass location applications such as advertising and analytics. Berg Insight forecasts that total global annual revenues for GMLC/MPC, SMLC/PDE, SUPL A-GNSS and probe-based location systems will grow from € 180 million in 2011 to € 330 million in 2017. These revenues comprise integration fees and licenses for new platform deployments, as well as capacity and technology upgrades, maintenance and associated services.


People tracking solutions that enable a third party to locate a person were introduced in the late 1990s. Today, most people tracking solutions rely on GNSS and mobile communication technologies to determine the location of a person and transmit the data to a third party.

Technological advancements have enabled substantial improvements in GPS receiver performance and cost. Small, dedicated battery powered GPS tracking devices suitable for the mass market has become a reality. There are also a growing number of people location apps that leverage the growing installed base of GPS-enabled smartphones.

People tracking solutions aimed at the consumer market range from family locator services that provide peace of mind for parents of children and teenagers, to solutions that assist caregivers of seniors and people suffering from various medical conditions. Family locator services have been part of mobile operators' LBS portfolios for many years, but are now facing competition from app developers. The willingness to pay for operator services is declining as consumers' awareness of free people location apps for smartphones has increased significantly in the past 12–18 months. Berg Insight estimates that there were about 20 million users of family locator apps in Europe and North America in August 2012.

The demand for dedicated location devices targeting the child and teenager segment is generally low as many parents adopt handset-based solutions. Numerous device vendors are therefore looking to address the needs of people caring for persons of all ages suffering from various medical conditions, such as autism and other cognitive limitations, epilepsy, cardiac problems and diabetes. These companies are also addressing the market for systems that assist seniors living at home or in care homes. The assistance systems are commonly called telecare systems or social alarms in Europe and Personal Emergency Response Systems (PERS) in the US. Berg Insight estimates that there are already up to 5 million users of the first generation social alarms connected to PSTN networks in Europe and North America. The addressable market for the next generation mobile social alarms is therefore large.

Companies from various industries such as fleet management, asset tracking and application development now provide people location services that address the needs of business customers. Mobile workforce management services aim to improve operational efficiency and focus on managing individual employees. Industry sectors leading the adoption of workforce management solutions include construction, distribution and companies with extensive field services. Mobile workforce management is frequently part of fleet management solutions for light commercial vehicle fleets. Applications can in addition be delivered via smartphones. Two-way communication saves time by enabling field staff to be directed to go from one place to another without returning to the central location for receiving new work orders. Cost savings can also be achieved through more efficient time verification and data collection in the field. Lone worker protection services primarily focus on ensuring the security of employees through features such as two-way communication and automatic location. Many lone worker protection services rely on dedicated location devices featuring alarm buttons and man down detection sensors. These devices are typically programmed to send alarms to supervisors or alarm receiving centres in case of emergency. Berg Insight forecasts that the number of active users of workforce management and dedicated lone worker protection services in Europe and North America will grow from 1.1 million in 2011 to 2.8 million in 2016.

Electronic monitoring (EM) of offenders is gradually being adopted globally. EM is used to provide alternative ways of sentencing offenders and reduce the escalating costs for the corrective systems. EM is employed at various stages of the criminal justice system, including at pre-trial, at sentencing and following a period of incarceration. The aim of EM programmes is to increase offender accountability, reduce recidivism rates and enhance public safety by providing an additional tool to traditional methods of community supervision. However, there is still debate over the effectiveness of EM and how to best implement the technologies in various programmes to achieve the goals. The most common forms of EM equipment in use today are RF systems that comprise a transmitter worn by the person being monitored, often in the form of an ankle bracelet. The RF transmitter sends out a signal to a receiver unit that communicates with a monitoring centre to report signal interruptions during curfews or any attempts to tamper with the equipment. Systems using GPS location that allow near real time location of the offender as well as creation of geographic inclusion and exclusion zones are also being used.


Table of contents

Table of contents i
List of figures vii
Executive summary 1
1 Personal navigation solutions 3
1.1 Overview of personal navigation solutions 4
1.1.1 Factory installed in-dash navigation and telematics solutions 5
1.1.2 Aftermarket in-dash infotainment and navigation systems 6
1.1.3 Personal Navigation Devices 7
1.1.4 Smartphones and mobile phones 7
1.1.5 Portable media players, tablets and phablets 8
1.2 PND categories and segments 10
1.2.1 Car navigation PNDs 10
1.2.2 Embedded PNDs 13
1.2.3 Multimode and rugged PNDs 14
1.2.4 Truck and recreational vehicle PNDs 14
1.3 Navigation app distribution channels and business models 15
1.3.1 Navigation app distribution channels 15
1.3.2 Active monthly navigation app users by distribution channel 18
1.3.3 Evolution of handset navigation app business models 18
1.3.4 App store strategies 20
1.4 Vehicle fleets and navigation system penetration 21
1.4.1 The European passenger car market 22
1.4.2 The North American passenger car and light truck market 23
2 Map data and content providers 27
2.1 Digital map data and image suppliers 29
2.1.1 Nokia HERE 30
2.1.2 TomTom Maps 31
2.1.3 AND 33
2.1.4 AutoNavi 34
2.1.5 Blom 34
2.1.6 CE Info Systems – MapmyIndia 35
2.1.7 DigitalGloble 35
2.1.8 Intermap Technologies 36
2.1.9 OpenStreetMap 36
2.1.10 ZENRIN 37
2.2 Traffic information services 38
2.2.1 Traffic information systems 38
2.2.2 RDS-TMC services 39
2.2.3 The TPEG standard 42
2.2.4 The VICS traffic information system 43
2.2.5 Market developments 43
2.2.6 AirSage 44
2.2.7 Be-Mobile 44
2.2.8 CE-Traffic 45
2.2.9 Clear Channel Radio's Total Traffic Network 45
2.2.10 Decell 45
2.2.11 INRIX 46
2.2.12 Mediamobile 46
2.2.13 TrafficCast 47
2.2.14 Trafficmaster 47
2.3 Speed camera warning devices and database providers 48
2.3.1 Coyote Systems 49
2.3.2 Cyclops 49
2.3.3 FoxyTag 49
2.3.4 Road Angel 50
2.3.5 Wikango 50
2.4 Travel guide, POI data and weather information providers 51
2.4.1 CustomWeather 51
2.4.2 Foreca 51
2.4.3 Fodor's Travel 51
2.4.4 Langenscheidt 52
2.4.5 Mairdumont 52
2.4.6 PagesJaunes Group 53
2.4.7 NavX 54
2.4.8 ViaMichelin 54
2.4.9 Wcities 54
3 Navigation software developers 57
3.1 Technology overview 57
3.1.1 On-board, off-board and hybrid navigation software 58
3.1.2 Evolution of navigation software features 58
3.2 Vendor market shares 60
3.2.1 Handset navigation app market shares in Europe 62
3.2.2 Handset navigation app market shares in North America 63
3.3 Company profiles and strategies 64
3.3.1 ALK Technologies 66
3.3.2 Aponia Software 67
3.3.3 Appello Systems 67
3.3.4 deCarta 68
3.3.5 Dynavix 69
3.3.6 Elektrobit 70
3.3.7 Fullpower Technologies 71
3.3.8 Google 71
3.3.9 GPS Tuner 72
3.3.10 Intrinsyc Software 72
3.3.11 MapQuest 73
3.3.12 Mireo 73
3.3.13 NaviExpert 74
3.3.14 Navitel 74
3.3.15 NAVITIME 75
3.3.16 Navmii 76
3.3.17 NDrive 76
3.3.18 NNG 77
3.3.19 Papago 78
3.3.20 PH Informatica 79
3.3.21 ROUTE 66 79
3.3.22 Skobbler 80
3.3.23 Sygic 80
3.3.24 TeleCommunication Systems 81
3.3.25 Telenav 82
3.3.26 Telmap 83
3.3.27 UbiEst 84
3.3.28 Waze 85
3.3.29 Yapp Mobile 86
4 Mobile operator service offerings 87
4.1 Navigation services from mobile operators in North America 87
4.1.1 AT&T 88
4.1.2 Bell Mobility 89
4.1.3 MetroPCS 89
4.1.4 Rogers Wireless 89
4.1.5 Sprint Nextel 90
4.1.6 TELUS 91
4.1.7 US Cellular 91
4.1.8 Verizon Wireless 91
4.2 Navigation services from mobile operators in Europe 92
4.2.1 Deutsche Telekom Group 94
4.2.2 Orange Group 95
4.2.3 SFR 97
4.2.4 Telefónica Group 97
4.2.5 Telekom Austria Group 98
4.2.6 TeliaSonera Group 99
4.2.7 Vodafone Group 101
4.3 Navigation services from mobile operators in Asia Pacific 103
4.3.1 Country profile: Australia 104
4.3.2 Country profile: Japan 105
4.3.3 Country profile: South Korea 107
4.3.4 SingTel Group 108
4.3.5 Bharti Airtel 109
4.3.6 Vodafone New Zealand 109
4.4 Navigation services in other countries 109
4.4.1 Country profile: Israel 110
4.4.2 Country profile: South Africa 111
4.4.3 América Móvil 112
4.4.4 NII Holdings 112
4.4.5 Telefónica Latin America 113
4.4.6 Mobile TeleSystems 114
5 Device vendor profiles 115
5.1 PND market developments 115
5.1.1 PND feature evolution 115
5.1.2 Market consolidation 117
5.2 PND shipments and vendor market shares 119
5.2.1 Shipments by geographical region 119
5.2.2 PND hardware revenues 120
5.2.3 Vendor market shares 121
5.3 PND vendor profiles and strategies 123
5.3.1 Garmin 123
5.3.2 TomTom 127
5.3.3 MiTAC 132
5.3.4 Airis 134
5.3.5 AvMap 134
5.3.6 Mappy / Logicom 135
5.3.7 MEDION 135
5.3.8 Panasonic 136
5.3.9 Prestigio 136
5.3.10 Shinco 137
5.3.11 Thinkware Systems 137
5.3.12 UniStrong 138
5.3.13 United Navigation 139
5.4 Handset market developments 140
5.4.1 Smartphone platform market shares 141
5.4.2 Smartphone vendor market shares 143
5.4.3 Smartphone ecosystems 144
5.4.4 Towards complete LBS offerings 145
5.4.5 Handset vendor navigation service strategies 146
5.5 Handset vendor profiles 147
5.5.1 Apple 147
5.5.2 BlackBerry 148
5.5.3 HTC 149
5.5.4 LG Electronics 149
5.5.5 Nokia 150
5.5.6 Samsung Electronics 151
5.5.7 Sony Mobile 152
6 Market analysis and forecasts 155
6.1 Navigation industry trends 155
6.1.1 PND sales continue to decline in developed markets 155
6.1.2 Low cost in-dash navigation systems drive take rates 156
6.1.3 Free navigation apps now available for all smartphone platforms 157
6.2 Regional markets 159
6.2.1 Total navigation system penetration rate by region 160
6.2.2 The European mobile navigation market 161
6.2.3 The European PND market 162
6.2.4 The North American mobile navigation market 164
6.2.5 The North American PND market 165
6.2.6 The Rest of World mobile navigation market 167
6.2.7 The Rest of World PND market 168
Glossary 171

List of figures

Figure 1.1: Main car navigation system categories 4
Figure 1.2: Examples of GPS-enabled tablets (March 2012) 9
Figure 1.3: Car navigation PND feature comparison by products segment 11
Figure 1.4: Garmin and TomTom PNDs 13
Figure 1.5: Examples of leading mobile app stores (Q4-2012) 17
Figure 1.6: Active navigation users by distribution channel (World 2008–2012) 18
Figure 1.7: Business models for mobile navigation apps and services 19
Figure 1.8: The European passenger car market (2012) 22
Figure 1.9: Car navigation system shipments in Europe (2002–2012) 23
Figure 1.10: Car navigation system shipments in North America (2002–2012) 24
Figure 1.11: The North American passenger car and light truck market (2012) 25
Figure 2.1: Examples of content providers 28
Figure 2.2: Major international digital map data suppliers 29
Figure 2.3: Traffic information platform 39
Figure 2.4: Examples of TMC service providers (2012) 41
Figure 2.5: Speed camera warning device and database vendors (Q1-2013) 48
Figure 2.6: Travel guide publishers 52
Figure 3.1: Mapping and navigation server platform 57
Figure 3.2: Navigation app and service providers by active users (World Q4-2012) 61
Figure 3.3: Handset navigation service market shares (EU27+2 2008–2012) 62
Figure 3.4: Handset navigation service market shares (North America 2008–2012) 63
Figure 3.5: Handset navigation app developers 65
Figure 4.1: Navigation offerings from North American operators (January 2013) 88
Figure 4.2: Navigation offerings from European operators (February 2013) 93
Figure 4.3: Examples of navigation offerings from APAC operators (February 2013) 103
Figure 5.1: PND feature penetration in Europe and North America (2007–2012) 116
Figure 5.2: PND brands by original industry 117
Figure 5.3: Global annual PND shipments and revenues (2005–2012) 119
Figure 5.4: PND shipments by region (Million units 2007–2012) 120
Figure 5.5: PND vendor market shares (World 2006–2012) 121
Figure 5.6: PND vendor market shares (Europe 2006–2012) 122
Figure 5.7: PND vendor market shares (North America 2006–2012) 122
Figure 5.8: Examples of Garmin nüvi PNDs 125
Figure 5.9: Examples of TomTom PNDs and connected PNDs 131
Figure 5.10: Smartphone shipments by vendor and OS (World 2012) 142
Figure 6.1: Smartphone, GPS-enabled Internet tablet and PND shipments (2011–2017) 159
Figure 6.2: PND and in-dash navigation system penetration (World 2007–2012) 160
Figure 6.3: Navigation app and service revenues (EU27+2 2011–2017) 161
Figure 6.4: Annual PND shipments in Europe (2006–2017) 162
Figure 6.5: PND ASP, device and service revenues in Europe (2011–2017) 163
Figure 6.6: Navigation app and service revenues (North America 2011–2017) 164
Figure 6.7: Annual PND shipments in North America (2006–2017) 165
Figure 6.8: PND ASP, device and service revenues in North America (2011–2017) 166
Figure 6.9: Navigation app and service revenues (ROW 2011–2017) 167
Figure 6.10: Annual PND shipments in ROW (2006–2017) 168
Figure 6.11: PND ASP, device and service revenues in ROW (2011–2017) 169


Table of Contents

Table of Contents i
List of Figures vii
Executive summary 1
1 Advertising and the mobile channel 3
1.1 Advertising and digital media 3
1.1.1 The marketing and advertising industry 3
1.1.2 The Internet media channel 6
1.1.3 The mobile media channel 7
1.2 Mobile advertising and marketing 10
1.2.1 The mobile handset as an advertising platform 11
1.2.2 Advertising on the mobile handset 13
1.2.3 The mobile advertising ecosystem 15
1.3 Mobile media channels and formats 16
1.3.1 Messaging 16
1.3.2 Mobile web 20
1.3.3 Mobile applications 25
1.4 Mobile marketing industry overview 30
1.4.1 Factors influencing the potential market value of mobile advertising 31
1.4.2 Current state and future trends 31
2 Mobile location technologies and services 33
2.1 Mobile network location architectures and platforms 33
2.1.1 Location architecture for GSM/UMTS networks 34
2.1.2 Location architecture for LTE networks 35
2.1.3 Control Plane and User Plane location platforms 36
2.1.4 Handset client and probe-based location platforms 37
2.2 Mobile location technologies and methods 38
2.2.1 Cell-ID 38
2.2.2 Enhanced Cell-ID 40
2.2.3 RF Pattern Matching 40
2.2.4 E-OTD, OTDOA and U-TDOA 40
2.2.5 GNSS: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Compass 41
2.2.6 Bluetooth and Wi-Fi positioning 42
2.2.7 Hybrid, mixed mode and indoor location technologies 43
2.2.8 Comparison of location technologies 44
2.3 Overview of mobile location-based services 48
2.3.1 Mapping and navigation 49
2.3.2 Local search and information 51
2.3.3 Social networking and entertainment 51
2.3.4 Recreation and fitness 52
2.3.5 Family and people locator services 53
2.3.6 Mobile resource management 53
3 Mobile location-based advertising and marketing 55
3.1 Definitions and variants of LBA 55
3.1.1 Static versus real-time location targeting 55
3.1.2 Push and pull LBA 58
3.1.3 LBA formats 59
3.2 Market receptiveness 62
3.2.1 Adoption patterns among brands and merchants 63
3.2.2 Outcomes of different LBA strategies 64
3.2.3 Consumer attitudes 67
3.2.4 Privacy concerns 70
3.3 Case studies 71
3.3.1 PlaceIQ and Medialets deliver location-aware rich media ads for Meguiar 71
3.3.2 Kiehl's leverages Placecast's technology to drive store visits 72
3.3.3 Coffee shops in event area promoted in The Weather Channel apps 72
3.3.4 Days Inn advertises locally in Poynt application 73
3.3.5 In-app advertising promotes eco-friendly BMW car events 73
3.3.6 LBS application Gettings promoted using Madvertise's LBA solution 73
3.3.7 Sherlock Holmes movie marketed using Bluetooth solution from BLIP 74
3.3.8 French Leboncoin monetises inventory using Admoove's LBA network 74
3.3.9 MINI's location-based reality game generates a PR value of € 1.2 million 75
3.3.10 L'Oréal and Superdrug leverage O2 More's geo-targeted SMS program 76
3.3.11 Angry Birds campaigns mix real-world and digital components 76
3.3.12 Young people encouraged to vote through NFC-enabled OOH campaign 77
3.3.13 P&G's Charmin eases public restroom finding with SitOrSquat app 77
4 Market forecasts and trends 79
4.1 LBA industry analysis 79
4.1.1 Classification of LBA offerings 79
4.1.2 LBA specialists 80
4.1.3 Mobile operators 81
4.1.4 LBS and navigation providers 82
4.1.5 Location-aware applications and media 83
4.1.6 Mobile coupons and deals providers 83
4.1.7 Mobile search providers 84
4.1.8 Proximity marketing providers 85
4.1.9 Traditional mobile advertising players 85
4.1.10 Major digital and telecom players 86
4.1.11 Industry associations 86
4.1.12 Mergers and acquisitions 88
4.2 LBA landscape trends 90
4.2.1 Drivers for success 90
4.2.2 Barriers to adoption 92
4.2.3 Overcoming the barriers 94
4.3 Market forecasts 96
4.3.1 Total, digital and mobile advertising market value forecasts 96
4.3.2 LBA market value forecast 98
4.4 Final conclusions 100
4.4.1 Location filtering improves the effectiveness of mobile marketing campaigns 100
4.4.2 Steadily increasing shares of ad budgets devoted to LBA 100
4.4.3 Real-time hyper-local geo-targeting is sparsely used 101
4.4.4 Location is only one of many valuable targeting variables 101
4.4.5 Mobile search and SMS campaigns are important high-volume LBA formats . 102
4.4.6 LBA offers new possibilities for all categories of advertisers 102
4.4.7 Location targeting will eventually become ubiquitous 103
5 Company profiles and strategies 105
5.1 LBA specialists 106
5.1.1 AdMoove 106
5.1.2 CityGrid Media 107
5.1.3 LEMON Mobile 108
5.1.4 Placecast 110
5.1.5 Verve Mobile 112
5.1.6 WHERE/PayPal Media Network 114
5.1.7 xAd 115
5.1.8 Xtify 117
5.1.9 YOOSE 119
5.2 Mobile operators 120
5.2.1 AT&T Mobility 120
5.2.2 Orange Group 123
5.2.3 SFR 125
5.2.4 Telefónica Group 126
5.2.5 Verizon Wireless 128
5.2.6 Weve – mobile operator joint venture in the UK 129
5.3 LBS and navigation providers 130
5.3.1 Appello Systems 131
5.3.2 Intersec 132
5.3.3 Telenav 135
5.3.4 Telenity 137
5.3.5 Telmap 139
5.3.6 TomTom 141
5.3.7 Waze 143
5.4 Location-aware applications and media 146
5.4.1 Badoo 146
5.4.2 Foursquare 147
5.4.3 Gbanga 149
5.4.4 SCVNGR/LevelUp 150
5.4.5 Shopkick 152
5.5 Mobile coupons and deals providers 153
5.5.1 COUPIES 154
5.5.2 Groupon 155
5.5.3 Vouchercloud 157
5.5.4 YourbanDeals 157
5.5.5 Yowza!! 159
5.6 Mobile search providers 160
5.6.1 Hibu 160
5.6.2 Mobile Commerce 162
5.6.3 Poynt 163
5.6.4 Yelp and Qype 164
5.7 Proximity marketing providers 165
5.7.1 NeoMedia 166
5.7.2 Proxama 166
5.7.3 Proximus Mobility 168
5.7.4 Qwikker 169
5.7.5 Scanbuy 171
5.8 Traditional mobile advertising players 172
5.8.1 InMobi 172
5.8.2 Jumptap 174
5.8.3 Madvertise 175
5.8.4 Millennial Media 177
5.8.5 Nexage 178
5.8.6 Sofialys 180
5.9 Major digital and telecom players 182
5.9.1 Apple 182
5.9.2 Facebook 184
5.9.3 Google 186
5.9.4 Microsoft 188
5.9.5 Nokia 190
5.9.6 Yahoo! 193
Glossary 197

List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Global advertisement expenditure by media (World 2011) 4
Figure 1.2: Top 20 advertisers (World 2010) 5
Figure 1.3: Online advertisement expenditure by region (World 2011) 7
Figure 1.4: Mobile subscriptions by region (World Q2-2012) 8
Figure 1.5: Stakeholders in the mobile marketing value chain 15
Figure 1.6: SMS ads – number of receivers and response rates (EU5 July 2011) 17
Figure 2.1: Location architecture overview 34
Figure 2.2: Cellular frequency reuse pattern 38
Figure 2.3: Cell-ID location methods 39
Figure 2.4: Performance and limiting factors for network-based location technologies 45
Figure 2.5: Performance and limiting factors for hybrid location technologies 47
Figure 2.6: Examples of LBS apps and services by active users (World 2012) 49
Figure 3.1: Examples of location granularities suitable for LBA 56
Figure 4.1: Categorisation of LBA players 80
Figure 4.2: Acquisitions in the LBA ecosystem (2011–2013) 89
Figure 4.3: Total, digital and mobile ad revenues by region (World 2011–2017) 97
Figure 4.4: LBA revenues and forecasts by region (World 2011–2017) 99
Figure 5.1: Overview of LBA industry players 105
Figure 5.2: European operator offerings powered by Appello Systems (December 2012) 132
Figure 5.3: North American operator offerings powered by Telenav (December 2012) 136
Figure 5.4: Waze user interface showing expanded business detail 145
Figure 5.5: SCVNGR LevelUp offering and FTUB white-label payment solution 151
Figure 5.6: YourbanDeals user interface 158


Table of Contents

Table of Contents i
List of Figures vi
Executive summary 1
1 Introduction to location-based services 3
1.1 Definition of mobile location-based services 3
1.2 Mobile communication services 4
1.2.1 Mobile voice and SMS 4
1.2.2 Mobile data and applications 5
1.2.3 A brief history of location platforms and services 7
1.3 Mobile LBS categories 9
1.3.1 Mapping and navigation 9
1.3.2 Local search and information 11
1.3.3 Social networking and entertainment 11
1.3.4 Recreation and fitness 12
1.3.5 Family and people locator services 12
1.3.6 Mobile resource management 12
1.3.7 Mobile advertising and marketing 13
1.3.8 Other services 14
1.4 Mobile app monetisation strategies and business models 15
1.4.1 Free apps 15
1.4.2 Paid apps 15
1.4.3 Freemium apps and in-app payments 16
1.4.4 Ad-funding 16
1.4.5 New channel to market 17
1.4.6 Bundled products and services 17
1.4.7 Mobile app business model trends 18
1.5 Mobile location technologies and platforms 19
1.5.1 Mobile network-based location technologies 20
1.5.2 GNSS: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Compass 21
1.5.3 Bluetooth and Wi-Fi positioning 22
1.5.4 Hybrid and indoor location technologies 23
1.5.5 Handset client and probe-based location platforms 23
1.6 The regulatory environment in Europe and North America 24
1.6.1 European emergency call and privacy regulations 25
1.6.2 LBS regulatory environment in the US 26
1.6.3 Emergency call regulations in Canada 28
2 Smartphone ecosystems 29
2.1 Smartphone OS platforms 29
2.1.1 Smartphone platform developments and market shares 31
2.1.2 Smartphone vendor market shares 32
2.1.3 Android 33
2.1.4 iOS 34
2.1.5 Windows Phone 35
2.1.6 BlackBerry OS and BlackBerry 10 35
2.1.7 Samsung's Bada platform 36
2.2 App stores 37
2.2.1 Apple App Store 39
2.2.2 BlackBerry App World 39
2.2.3 Google Play 40
2.2.4 Nokia Store 40
2.2.5 Windows Phone Store 41
2.3 Ad networks and in-app ad solutions 42
2.3.1 Apple – iAd 44
2.3.2 RIM – BlackBerry Advertising Service 45
2.3.3 Microsoft – Windows Phone/Microsoft Advertising 46
2.3.4 Nokia – Nokia Ad Exchange 46
2.3.5 Android – AdMob and third-party ad networks 47
2.4 Smartphone industry analysis 47
2.4.1 Smartphone platforms are becoming new vertical silos 48
2.4.2 Towards complete LBS offerings 49
2.4.3 Operators start to back emerging smartphone platforms 49
2.4.4 Handset vendor strategies 50
2.4.5 The mobile web, HTML5 web apps and native apps 51
3 Operator LBS offerings and strategies 53
3.1 The European operator LBS market 53
3.1.1 3 Group 56
3.1.2 Deutsche Telekom Group 56
3.1.3 KPN Group 57
3.1.4 Orange Group 57
3.1.5 SFR 59
3.1.6 Telefónica Group 59
3.1.7 Telenor Group 60
3.1.8 TeliaSonera Group 61
3.1.9 Vodafone Group 62
3.2 The North American operator LBS market 63
3.2.1 AT&T Mobility 65
3.2.2 Bell Mobility 66
3.2.3 MetroPCS 66
3.2.4 Rogers Wireless 66
3.2.5 Sprint Nextel 67
3.2.6 TELUS 68
3.2.7 T-Mobile USA 68
3.2.8 US Cellular 68
3.2.9 Verizon Wireless 69
3.3 Location aggregators and Location-as-a-Service providers 70
3.3.1 Deveryware 70
3.3.2 Locaid 70
3.3.3 Location Labs 71
3.3.4 Lociloci 73
3.3.5 Mobile Commerce 73
3.4 Industry analysis 74
3.4.1 Organisational capabilities and goals limit operator's ability to provide LBS .74
3.4.2 Smartphone platforms challenge operators' role as distribution channel 75
3.4.3 Operators are no longer the central source of location data 75
3.4.4 Emerging opportunities for operators to sell bulk location data .76
4 Consumer LBS categories 77
4.1 Mapping and navigation 77
4.1.1 Mapping and routing services 77
4.1.2 Speed camera warning apps and services 79
4.1.3 Traffic information services 80
4.1.4 Turn-by-turn navigation services 82
4.1.5 Mapping and navigation industry trends 82
4.1.6 Mobile operator service offerings 85
4.1.7 Handset vendor offerings 88
4.1.8 App stores and service providers 90
4.1.9 Key market players 90
4.2 Local search and information 100
4.2.1 Directory services 101
4.2.2 Local discovery and review services 104
4.2.3 Travel planning, guides and information services 105
4.2.4 Shopping and coupon services 107
4.3 Social networking and entertainment 109
4.3.1 Social networking and community services 110
4.3.2 Check-in services 113
4.3.3 Friendfinder services 114
4.3.4 Communication, chat and instant messaging services 115
4.3.5 Location-based games 116
4.4 Recreation and fitness 118
4.4.1 Geocaching apps 118
4.4.2 Outdoor navigation 118
4.4.3 Sports tracking apps 119
4.5 Family and people locator services 122
4.5.1 Family locator services marketed by mobile operators 122
4.5.2 Third party family and people locator apps and services 124
5 Enterprise LBS categories and LBA 127
5.1 Mobile resource management 127
5.1.1 Fleet management services 127
5.1.2 Mobile workforce management services 130
5.1.3 Lone worker protection services 134
5.2 Mobile advertising and marketing 136
5.2.1 The marketing and advertising industry 136
5.2.2 Advertising on the mobile handset 137
5.2.3 Definitions and variants of LBA 139
5.2.4 LBA formats 141
5.2.5 LBA industry analysis 144
6 Market analysis and forecasts 147
6.1 Summary of the LBS market 147
6.1.1 The European LBS market 147
6.1.2 The North American LBS market 148
6.2 Mobile advertising and location 149
6.2.1 Challenges and opportunities for mobile advertising 149
6.2.2 Location can improve ROI for advertisers 150
6.2.3 LBA market value forecast 150
6.3 Vertical market trends 152
6.3.1 Mapping and navigation services become free for end-users 152
6.3.2 Search and information services growth driven by smartphone uptake 155
6.3.3 Social networking and entertainment services gradually add location 156
6.3.4 Smartphones are increasingly used as recreation and fitness devices 158
6.3.5 Family and people locator service uptake driven by free apps 160
6.3.6 Corporate efficiency investments drive WFM service adoption 161
Glossary 163

List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Mobile subscriptions by region (World Q2-2012) 4
Figure 1.2: Wireless service revenues (World 2012) 5
Figure 1.3: Smartphone adoption and market shares (Western Europe 2009–2012) 6
Figure 1.4: Smartphone adoption and market shares (North America 2009–2012) 6
Figure 1.5: Mobile location-based service categories 10
Figure 1.6: LBS system overview 19
Figure 2.1: Smartphone shipments by vendor and OS (World 9M-2012) 30
Figure 2.2: Leading mobile app stores (Q4-2012) 38
Figure 2.3: Examples of mobile ad networks (World 2012) 43
Figure 3.1: Mobile operators by number of subscribers (EU27+2 Q2-2012) 54
Figure 3.2: LBS offered by mobile operators (Europe 2008–2012) 55
Figure 3.3: Mobile operators by number of subscribers (North America Q2-2012) 64
Figure 4.1: Mapping app and service offerings 78
Figure 4.2: Speed camera warning apps 79
Figure 4.3: Traffic information platform 80
Figure 4.4: Traffic information apps and services 81
Figure 4.5: New business models for mobile navigation services 83
Figure 4.6: Navigation offerings from European operators (December 2012) .86
Figure 4.7: Navigation offerings from North American operators (December 2012) 87
Figure 4.8: Android, BlackBerry, iPhone and WP7/8 turn-by-turn navigation apps 89
Figure 4.9: Navigation app and service providers by active users (World Q4-2012) 91
Figure 4.10: Local search and information services marketed by operators (2012) 100
Figure 4.11: Leading directory service providers (2012) 101
Figure 4.12: Mobile yellow pages usage and app downloads (EU 27+2 2009–2012) 102
Figure 4.13: Directory provider distribution channels and business models .103
Figure 4.14: Local discovery and review services 104
Figure 4.15: Online travel companies 105
Figure 4.16: Travel guide publishers 106
Figure 4.17: Shopping assistant and coupon services (2012) 107
Figure 4.18: Social networks with over 100 million users (World 2012) 111
Figure 4.19: Mobile-originated social networking services (2012) 112
Figure 4.20: Social networking services with check-in feature (World 2012) .113
Figure 4.21: Examples of friendfinder services (2012) 114
Figure 4.22: Location-enhanced communication, chat and IM services (2012) 115
Figure 4.23: Examples of location-based game developers (2012) 117
Figure 4.24: Examples of outdoor navigation app developers (2012) 119
Figure 4.25: Examples of sports tracking app developers (2012) 120
Figure 4.26: People locator services marketed by mobile operators (2012) 123
Figure 4.27: Third party people locator services using Cell-ID (EU27+2 2012) 125
Figure 4.28: People tracking and location sharing apps (2012) 126
Figure 5.1: Examples of fleet management offerings by mobile operators (2012) 129
Figure 5.2: Workforce management services marketed by operators (2012) 131
Figure 5.3: Examples of mobile workforce management service providers (2012) 133
Figure 5.4: Lone worker protection service providers (2012) 135
Figure 5.5: Global advertising expenditure by media (World 2012) 136
Figure 6.1: LBS revenue forecast (EU27+2 2011–2017) 148
Figure 6.2: LBS revenue forecast (North America 2011–2017) 149
Figure 6.3: LBA revenues and forecasts (EU27+2 and North America 2011–2017) 151
Figure 6.4: Mapping and navigation service revenues (EU27+2 2011–2017) 153
Figure 6.5: Mapping and navigation service revenues (North America 2011–2017) 154
Figure 6.6: Search and information service revenues (EU27+2 2011–2017) 155
Figure 6.7: Search and information service revenues (North America 2011–2017) 156
Figure 6.8: Social networking and entertainment revenues (EU27+2 2011–2017) 157
Figure 6.9: Social networking and entertainment revenues (North America 2011–2017) 158
Figure 6.10: Recreation and fitness revenues (EU27+2 2011–2017) 159
Figure 6.11: Recreation and fitness revenues (North America 2011–2017) 159
Figure 6.12: Family and people locator service revenues (EU27+2 2011–2017) .160
Figure 6.13: Family and people locator service revenues (North America 2011–2017) 161
Figure 6.14: Workforce management service revenues (EU27+2 2011–2017) 162
Figure 6.15: Workforce management service revenues (North America 2011–2017) 162


Table of Contents

Table of Contents i
List of Figures vii
Executive summary 1
1 Introduction to location platforms 3
1.1 Location platforms and location-based services 3
1.1.1 Overview of mobile location platforms 4
1.1.2 A brief history of location platforms and services 4
1.2 Mobile communication services 6
1.2.1 Mobile voice and data subscribers 7
1.2.2 Mobile voice and SMS service revenues 8
1.2.3 Mobile data and application revenues 8
1.2.4 Location apps and service revenues 9
1.3 Mobile location platforms and technologies 10
1.3.1 Mobile location platforms 10
1.3.2 Mobile location technologies 11
1.3.3 Location middleware 13
1.4 The mobile LBS value chain 14
1.4.1 Location technology developers and platform vendors 14
1.4.2 Connectivity chipset vendors 15
1.4.3 LBS middleware vendors 16
1.4.4 Indoor location solution providers 16
1.4.5 Mobile network operators 17
1.4.6 Location aggregators and database providers 17
1.4.7 Smartphone platform and handset vendors 18
1.4.8 Mobile application developers and service providers 18
1.5 Telecoms regulations drive location platform deployments 19
1.5.1 European emergency call and privacy regulations 19
1.5.2 LBS regulatory environment in the US 21
1.5.3 Emergency call regulations in Australia 23
1.5.4 Emergency call regulations in Canada 23
1.5.5 The Indian Department of Telecommunications location mandate 24
1.5.6 Emergency call regulations in Japan 24
2 Technology overview 25
2.1 Mobile network location platforms 26
2.1.1 Location architecture for GSM/UMTS networks 26
2.1.2 Location architecture for LTE networks 27
2.1.3 Location architecture and technologies in 3GPP2 networks 28
2.1.4 Control Plane and User Plane location platforms 29
2.1.5 OMA SUPL 1.0 30
2.1.6 OMA SUPL 2.0 and SUPL 2.1 30
2.1.7 OMA SUPL 3.0 32
2.1.8 Handset client and probe-based location platforms 33
2.1.9 Location in converged IP networks 34
2.2 Network-based positioning technologies 35<

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